Guise, House of


Guise, House of
   A branch of the House of Lorraine, descended from a younger son of René II of Lorraine. Claude de Lorraine, first duke de Guise (1496-1550), born in Condé-sur-Moselle, served francis i, was wounded at Marignan, and suppressed a jacquerie rebellion in Lorraine. His daughter, queen of Scotland, was the mother of Mary Stuart. François I de Lorraine, second duke de Guise (1519-63), born in Saint-Mesmin, near Orléans, was the son of Claude de Lorraine. Surnamed "le Balafré," after a wound received at Boulogne, he distinguished himself fighting against the emperor Charles V, in particular by his holding of Metz and his victory at Renti (1554) over the Imperial armies. In 1557, he took command of the troops sent to Naples to help Pope Paul IV but was recalled to France after the disaster at Saint-Quentin and, becoming lieutenant general of the kingdom, rectified the situation by taking Calais. The coming to the throne of francis ii, his nephew by marriage, allowed him to exercise much political power. He employed a policy of repression against the Protestants (suppression of the Amboise conspiracy, 1560; the condemning to death of louis, prince de condé). After the death of Francis II, which saved Condé, he eschewed the policy of conciliation of Catherine de' medici and unleashed the first War of Religion with the massacre at Wassy (1562) and won a victory over Condé at Dreux before being assassinated at the siege of Orléans by poltrot de méré. Henri I de Lorraine, third duke de Guise (1550-88), the son of François i de Lorraine and known also as "le Balafré," served the Holy Roman Emperor Maximillian I in the wars against the Ottoman Turks (1566), then fought the huguenots (Jarnac, Moncontour). Dissatisfied with the Peace of Saint-Germain, he planned first an attempt on the life of Admiral de coligny, who foiled it, then the saint Bartholomew's day massacre (1572). The Peace of Monsieur (1576), which many considered treasonous, put him at the head of the holy league and in alliance with Philip II of Spain. He refused also to accept Henry of Navarre as heir to the throne (see henry iv). After his victories at Auneau and Vimory over the German Calvinist mercenaries, he entered Paris, where he was very popular and where the League rose up in his support. He left the king and the city, but the former had him assassinated at Blois. Louis II de Guise (1555-88), cardinal of Lorraine and the brother of Henri of Lorraine, was born at Dampierre. He was also involved with the League and was assassinated shortly after his brother. The duchy of Guise then passed to the Condés (1704), then to the House of Orléans (1832).

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Guise, House of — • A branch of the ducal family of Lorraine who played an important part in the religious troubles of France during the seventeenth century Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Guise, house of — Noble French Roman Catholic family that played a major role in French politics during the Reformation. Claude de Lorraine (1496–1550) was created the 1st duke de Guise in 1527 for his service to Francis I in the defense of France. Claude s sons… …   Universalium

  • House of Guise —     House of Guise     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► House of Guise     The House of Guise, a branch of the ducal family of Lorraine, played an important part in the religious troubles of France during the seventeenth century. By reason of descent… …   Catholic encyclopedia

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  • Guise — /geez/, n. 1. François de Lorraine /frddahonn swann deuh law rdden /, 2nd Duc de, 1519 63, French general and statesman. 2. his son, Henri I de Lorraine /ahonn rddee /, Duc de, 1550 88, French general and leader of opposition to the Huguenots. *… …   Universalium

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